Dr. Mariam Al-Muftah’s research team has been involved in the research for understanding cancer immunology to enhance cancer immunotherapy outcomes. Much progress has been made in the past decades in discovering and approving immune checkpoint inhibitor agents as cancer immunotherapies. Nevertheless, there has been a shortcoming in the research from a subset of patients' responses. Single biomarkers have shown limitations in predicting response to immunotherapy and capturing the complexity of the tumor microenvironment. One of the areas Dr. Al-Muftah’s team is focused on is the identification and validation of gene/immune signatures as biomarkers. This is achieved through the collaboration with well-established biomarkers, for the classification of patients’ eligibility in terms of deriving benefit from cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The use of immunotherapy (anti-PD-L1) for the treatment of metastatic TNBC has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This type of cancer shows a relatively higher prevalence in the Middle East, imposing a high burden and challenge on the healthcare systems. This translational research team aims to provide valuable knowledge and insight into overcoming the challenges associated with the immunologic treatment of TNBC - thus enhancing clinical practice and improving patient survival.